Ang 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement
Copies of these notes will be communicated to Excellence as soon as they are exchanged. I would also like to remind Your Excellency that the conclusion of this agreement for practical consideration raises the question of whether Italy is participating in a partition or reorganization of Turkey in Asia, as formulated in Article 9 of the agreement of 26 April 1915 between Italy and its allies. Loevy referred to a similar point with regard to sections 4 to 8 of the agreement, recalling that the British and French practiced « Ottoman colonial development » and that this experience served as a roadmap for subsequent war negotiations.  While Khalidi examined the negotiations of Great Britain and France in 1913 and 1914 on the Homs-Baghdad railway line, as well as their agreements with Germany, in other regions, as a « clear basis » for their subsequent spheres of influence under the agreement. On April 21, Faisal left for the East. Before leaving, on 17 April Clemenceau sent a draft letter in which the French government declared that it recognized « Syria`s right to independence in the form of a federation of autonomous governments in accordance with the traditions and wishes of the population », claiming that Fayçal had recognized « that France is called a power, Syria the necessary assistance by various advisers On 20 April , Fayçal Clemenceau assured that he was « deeply impressed by the selfless kindness of your statements while I was in Paris, and I must thank you for first proposing the sending of the Allied Commission which will soon travel to the East to identify the wishes of the local peoples regarding the future organization of their country. I am sure the Syrian people will know how to show you their gratitude.  George Curzon said: the great powers remain committed to the Organic Regulation Agreement, regarding governance and non-interference in the affairs of the Maronite, Orthodox Christian, Druze and Muslim communities with regard to beirut Vilayet of June 1861 and September 1864, adding that the rights granted to France in Syria and parts of Turkey under Sykes-Picot , are incompatible with this agreement.  Colonel Edouard Brémond was sent to Saudi Arabia in September 1916 as head of the French military mission to the Arabs. According to Cairo, Brémond was anxious to contain the revolt so that the Arabs would not threaten French interests in Syria. These concerns were not repeated in London, Franco-British cooperation was considered a priority and Cairo took note.
(Wingate was informed at the end of November that it « seems desirable to impress your subordinates with the need for the most loyal cooperation with the French, which Her Majesty`s Government does not suspect of further projects in the Hijaz. »  « Provisional observations »; Sykes-Picot Joint Memorandum, January 3, 1916 The agreement effectively divided the Ottoman provinces outside the Arabian Peninsula into territories of British and French control and influence. The countries controlled by Great Britain and France were divided by the Sykes-Picot line.  The agreement that gave Britain control of present-day southern Israel and Palestine, Jordan and southern Iraq, as well as another small area including the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean.    France should control southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.  In his introduction to a symposium on Sykes-Picot in 2016, law professor Anghie notes that much of the agreement entrusts « trade and trade agreements, access to ports and the construction of railways. »  The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations.